Many non-domesitic animal species kept as pets or in collections can't really be classified as wildlife, but still need different techiques to other animals

Exotic animals are not wildlife, but there are some similarities in their surgical management. Some techniques and principles can be shared between zoo animals and exotic pets, particularly parrots, birds of prey, tortoises, lizards, and snakes.  In other cases, despite the same species of a bird such as toucan being kept as a pet or in a zoo, they may be prone to develop different health problems. Post-surgical management of a single pet macaw in a cage or a macaw in a large group in a big zoo aviary are very different. They may hence need very different surgical management despite having the same medical condition.

An endoscopic surgical neutering (ovariectomy) of a female iguana. Also referred to as minimally invasive or keyhole surgery, endosurgery results in small wounds, a faster recovery, and less post-operative pain in veterinary patients, just as in humans. It also allows excellent visualisation in small patients, far better than possible in open surgery.

Spinal surgery in a small exotic pet mammal. Use of a low profile ring retractor and bipolar radiosurgery allow excellent visualisation and a meticulous anatomical approach to the surgery.