Surgical procedures involved with the preservation of biodiversity and maximisation of genetic heterogenaity in remnant populations

Conservation is the preservation of biological diversity of our natural world. So what do we mean by conservation surgery? There are an unprecedented number of animal species threatened by extinction than at any time in human history. There are numerous different ways that biologists, conservation scientists, geneticists, theriogenologists  and others try to address this in different species and locations. Advanced reproduction techniques such as artificial insemination can be used in cases were it is not possible to breed a genetically valuable animal naturally. This may be due to trauma and a missing limb, or behaviour problems in an animal that has been hand reared after its mother has been killed. Occasionally a male be impossible to place with females, as he will attack and kill them, and artificial insemination is the only method of reproduction safe for the female. Surgery can be used on occasion to help the breeding of endangered animals. Technologies such as artificial insemmination allow one to ensure that the genetics of a rare animal are not lost, and breeding can occur even with animals on different continents. Cryopreservation of semen allows attempts at artificial insemmination even if the male has died since the semen was collected.